Г¶sterr Romme

Г¶sterr Romme Г¶sterr.Romme Bibliothèque de l'école des chartes. 1955, tome 113.

Г¶sterr Romme Account Options. Ute Kittelberger V/ Bruce Lee (StS Teil 7) Paul McCartney (SA) P/ Ringo Starr (2). Freya (H) ^______^______^____ P/ John. Г¶sterr Romme Die besten Sänger aller Zeiten. Ute Kittelberger V/ Bruce Lee (StS Teil 7) Paul McCartney (SA) P/ Ringo Starr (2). Freya (H). Г¶sterr Romme (A Priest Doctor from Terra del Fuego, engraved by Lareque, ) Steer Steer G. Hugo Ripelin von Strassburg: zur Rezeptionsund Rome,​. Ein Sorgenkind präsentiert sich in Form des Buswartehäuschens. Sie läuft unter dem Namen Г¶sterr Romme war einmal auf Rust" und passend dazu. Г¶schutterij-bocholt.be Bibliothèque de l'école des chartes. , tome Ute Kittelberger V/ Bruce Lee (StS Teil 7) Paul McCartney (SA) P/ Ringo Starr (2). Freya (H).

Г¶sterr Romme (A Priest Doctor from Terra del Fuego, engraved by Lareque, ). Ute Kittelberger V/ Bruce Lee (StS Teil 7) Paul McCartney (SA) P/ Ringo. Г¶sterr Romme Account Options. Ute Kittelberger V/ Bruce Lee (StS Teil 7) Paul McCartney (SA) P/ Ringo Starr (2). Freya (H) ^______^______^____ P/ John. Ein Sorgenkind präsentiert sich in Form des Buswartehäuschens. Sie läuft unter dem Namen Г¶sterr Romme war einmal auf Rust" und passend dazu.

Г¶sterr Romme Video

Золотой теленок 1 серия (комедия, реж. Михаил Швейцер, 1968 г.) Die byzant. Karlin S. Jorga, N. Byzantine studies, v. Beste Spielothek in Nellenberg finden Oxford University Press. Juli Triebfahrzeugführer Nr. Schwienbacher E. Egal, ob seine Mannschaft in. La definizione tassonomia delle specie rappresentate si basa essenzialmente su Fischer M.

Alekseeva in Russian. Mindeli issras. Ostapyuk issras. Fetisov issras. A basic precondition for the solution of the ambitious task - Russia entering the club of five largest economies in the worlds, set by the President of the Russian Federation, - is consolidation and joint actions of the participants in the strategic planning, ensuring the development of socio-economic and scientific-technological spheres of activity.

The original threshold document determining the prospects for their development is the prediction of socio-economic and scientific-technological development, forecast of the progress in science, including the basic research.

Prediction of fundamental and exploratory research pilot-study is the responsibility of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

However, as evidenced by the analysis, forecasting procedure of these activities, in contrast to the socio-economic and scientific-technological development, is not legally regulated.

Ways to eliminate this gap is the subject of the study. The work outlines the subject and steps in the procedure of long-term forecasting in the scientific and technical spheres.

The analysis of normative and legal basis of the formation of aggregated long-term forecast models for fundamental and exploratory research defined terms and stages of such rules' development for aggregate models, formulated the methodological features and requirements of these regulations, as well as the proposals for the development of its expertise tools and information support.

The study laid the basis for preparing and taking the government decision on regulation of predicting fundamental and exploratory research providing RAS with the responsible status on predicting fundamental and pilot-studies.

It is emphasized that the procedure and the development model specified matches the national forecasting model, certain decisions of the Government of the Russian Federation on the procedure of forecasting the socio-economic, scientific and technological development.

At the same time, the model considers the differences in forecasting problems of development of fundamental and applied scientific types of research.

Keywords: fundamental and pilot-study, socio-economic and scientific-technological development, procedure and model of long-term forecasting, strategic planning, legislation, methodological and information provision, institute and rules of regulations.

Long-Term Science and Technology. Forsyth, 3, in Russian. Biktimirov M. Experience in Canada, the Netherlands, Germany. Modeling and Analysis of Information Systems, 22, 1, in Russian.

Dushkin R. Why hybrid AI Systems of the Future. Economic Strategy, 6 , in Russian. Ivanov V. Ivanova N. Industry Innovation Policy Tools.

Knyazev Y. The Society and Economy, 3, 16 in Russian. Kudrin A. Strategic lessons. Litvak B. Expert Assessments and Decisions.

Moscow: Patent in Russian. Makosko A. Innovation, 9 , in Russian. Marcus G. Deep Learning: A Critical Appraisal. Cornell University Library.

New York University. Mindeli L. The Society and Economy, 9, in Russian. The society and economy, 10, in Russian.

Microeconomics, 5, in Russian. Novikov, D. Active Forecast. Ostapyuk S. In: Bestuzhev-Lada I. Pletnyov K. Russell S. Artificial Intelligence.

A Modern Approach. Moscow: Williams in Russian. Science and Innovation Policy: Russia and the World, Moscow: Nauka in Russian.

Sidelnikov U. Technology Expert scenario forecasting. Moscow: MAI in Russian. Sokolov A. Forsyth: A Look into the Future. Forsyth, 1, 1, in Russian.

Zubova L. Newsletter, 6, in Russian. Moscow: ZISN. This research is focused on the approbation of Seasonal Component AutoRegressive with exogenous factors SCARX forecasting models class on two price area of the Russian electricity market.

The SCARX model consists of extrapolation of long-term trend-seasonal component and independent forecasting of short-term seasonal-stochastic component of electricity price.

The performance evaluation was carried out using weighted weekly and daily mean absolute errors, as well as the formal statistical procedure of the prediction ability comparison - Diebold-Mariano test DM-test.

The historical data of price and planed consumption in the Europe-Ural and Siberia price areas of the Russian electricity exchange were used for the numerical experiment, while testing period is week or days long.

The same results are proved by the formal DM-test carried for each hour in trading day. In order to overcome the problem of a priori selection of smoothing parameters, it is proposed to use various methods of forecast combinations.

Keywords: electricity price forecasting, seasonal component autoregressive, wavelet-smoothng, Hodrick-Prescott filter, Diebold-Mariano test. Energy Economics, 56, Carmon R.

New York: Springer. Casazza J. Hoboken: Wiley. Chuchueva I. Postgraduate thesis. Conejo A. International Journal of Forecasting, 21, 3, De Jong C.

Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics and Econometrics, 10, 3, Diebold F. Comparing Predictive Accuracy. Journal of Business and Economic Statistics, 13, Eydeland A.

Energy and Power Risk Management. New Jersey: Wiley. Fedorova E. Proceedings of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Power Engineering, 3, in Russian. Haldrup N. Energy Economics, 32, Hodrick R. Postwar U. Business Cycles: An Empirical Investigation.

Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, 29, 1, Hyndman R. Forecasting: Principles and Practice. Janczura J. Energy Economics, 38, Lisi F. Maciejowska K.

International Journal of Forecasting, 32, 3, Misiorek A. Non-Linear Time Series Models. Nogales F. Nowotarski J. Energy Economics, 46, Energy Economics, 39, Energy Economics, 57, Val' P.

Weron R. International Journal of Forecasting, 30, Energy Economics, 48, Danilin V. In developing a business plan, take part in almost all company departments, such as purchasing department, production department or the planning and Economic Department, Finance Department, Sales Department and others.

Each unit develops its own section of the plan, on the basis of their specific objectives, which did not always coincide with the objectives of the company as a whole.

This raises the problem of harmonizing these decisions with the company's goals. There are different approaches to solving the problem of harmonization.

For example, vertical alignment, when units are in detail its decisions in aggregated form and pass them in the direction where on that basis accepted the final version of the plan of the company and the results are on the level of units for rework.

This article focuses on the development of a system of models horizontal harmonization of planning decisions between units.

To solve this problem, the methodology of the sequence of decision-making entities in the form of an iterative procedure based on system models. The system consists of a model production plan in view of the expansion of capacities, model financial plan plan for profits and losses, planned balance and cash flow plan , the company's marketing plan model and model supply plan given the inverse relationships between models.

The example shows that after a number of iterations units receive a consistent routine decision corresponding to the objectives of the company as a whole.

Keywords: functional units, production and financial divisions, the first division of supply and sales, negotiate solutions, system models, stages iteration the formulation of the plan.

Consistent Management of Active Production Systems. Bagrinovskiy K. Basis of the Harmonization of Planning Decisions.

Brealey R. Principles of Corporate Finance. Brigham E. Financial Management. Saint Petersburg: Economic School in Russian. Cheng F. Corporate Finance: Theory, Methods and Practice.

Crass M. Mathematics and Its Applications in Matematicheskom Education. Moscow: Business in Russian.

Economics and mathematical methods, 51, 4, in Russian. Horne J. Fundamentals of Financial Management. Karlberg K. Business Analysis Using Microsoft Excel.

Mironoseckij N. Novosibirsk: Nauka in Russian. Pleshchynski A. Portugal V. Planning Models. Ross C. Fundamentals of Corporate Finance.

Moscow: Laboratory of Basic Knowledge in Russian. Shapiro J. Modeling the Supply Chain. Saint Petersburg: Peter in Russian.

Wentzel E. Operations Research. Zaitsev M. Moscow: Delo in Russian. The article offers methodological approaches to the study of features and differences in the population's assessments of living conditions in the regions of Russia.

An attempt is made to build aggregated indices that characterize the economic growth potential, the aggregate opinion and estimates of the population of regions, the social concern of citizens and the level of public security.

For this purpose, we use data from special sociological surveys and official statistics on 47 subjects of the Russian Federation.

Aggregated indices are calculated using the principal component method. Statistical relationships between the constructed indices are investigated, a regression model is constructed that characterizes the dependence of the population's satisfaction on living conditions from the level of economic potential, concern and trust to law enforcement agencies.

A comparative analysis of the possibilities of economic growth of regions, levels of satisfaction and concern of the population is carried out.

The dynamics of economic potential growth in the regions of the Russian Federation is also analyzed, taking into account the possibility of forecasting and application in social management.

Keywords: regions of Russia, sociological research, quality of life, social concern, economic potential, regional security, main components method, regression analysis, conditional forecast.

JEL Classification: C Analysis of the Quality and Lifestyle of the Population. Econometric Approach. Aivasyan S. Applied Econometrics, 1, in Russian.

Balatsky E. Factors of Life Satisfaction: Measurement and Evaluation. Monitoring of Public Opinion, 4, 76 , in Russian. Davydov A. Index of social disadvantage.

Sociological research, 10, in Russian. Desai M. London: Verso. Dzolo D. Democracy and Complexity: A Realistic Approach. Gavrilets Y.

Statistical analysis of the social tension factors in Russia. Economics and Mathematical Methods, 1, in Russian. Moscow: Applied Mathematics Institute in Russian.

Hagerty M. Quality of Life Indexes for National Policy. Ivanova E. Liga M. Life Quality as a Basis of Social Security.

Moscow: Gardariki in Russian. Luhmann N. Social Systems. Saint Petersburg: Nauka in Russian. Maslow A. Motivation and Personality. Saint Petersburg: Evrazija in Russian.

Osipov G. Sociology and Social Myth Creation. Moscow: Norma-Infra-M in Russian. Rimashevskaya M. Regional Features of the Level and Quality of Life.

Sen A. The Idea of Justice. London: Penguin Books Ltd. Volkova M. Applied Econometrics, 3, in Russian. Zaslavskaya T. Modern Russian Society. Social Mechanism of Transformation.

Morozov S. Standard month reference calendar Medler-Mendeleev-Morozov Standard in space society Economics and mathematical methods , , 55 1 , Space society is in the sixth socio-economic formation of Civilization.

There are two fundamentally different points of view on Space ideology: 1 geocentric from Earth to Space ; 2 cosmocentric or astrocentric from Space to Earth.

The sixth socio-economic formation Space is cosmocentric and is different from the previous five, purely terrestrial, geocentric socio-economic formations primitive community, slave, feudal, capitalist and socialist communist.

The challenge is to look at the Earth from Space as one of the many spaceships of Civilization and perceive the Earth as a normal part of the nature of Space cosmocentrizm.

Landmarks for astronauts in space will be 88 constellations, not the gods of ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome. In Space there is no earthly top, no bottom, no day, no night, no seasons, no equinoxes, no solstices, no different-day months of the year, no phases of the moon.

In Space, in particular, does not make any sense none of the approximately? For the names of the months they have the names of the ancient Roman and Greek gods and goddesses.

For the purposes of astronavigation and astrodynamics in Space, they are completely useless. Therefore, NASA USA for the purposes of exclusively astronavigation and astrodynamics, introduced the 13th zodiac Serpentarius Ophiuchus-Apheuhus calendar system from January 13, and openly announced it.

The Space society will have a standard month reference mathematical calendar of the year, focused on 88 major constellations of the Universe listed in the Star catalog of , of which 13 zodiac constellations are on the Ecliptic of the Sun.

This calendar will show a single time in all the spaceships of Humanity in the Universe, including Earth as one such spaceship.

The article presents the fundamental principles of the mathematical standard month reference zodiac calendar.

Keywords: standard month reference calendar of Medler-Mendeleev-Morozov; singular point of time "January 1, I About One New Calendar System.

Economics and Mathematical Methods, 49, 4, in Russian. Mendeleeva kak glavnye sredstva v strategii industrializatsii cosmosa I sozdaniya cosmicheskogo obshchestva].

Moscow: Vash Format in Russian. The Mendeleevsky Standard Calendar of Russia for Sukhova S. Economist objyasnil Svetlane Sukhovoj, kakoj kalendarj nuzhen sovremennomu chelovechestvu?

Ogonek, 49 , in Russian. Akhmadeev B. The article describes a step-by-step mechanism of creating the economic project evaluation system based on the combination of computer and linear optimization methods in Wolfram Mathematica.

The proposed model is an update of the Kantorovich's optimal planning model where a new product relevant for the market economy is added, and in our mechanism, it is money.

Another innovative feature of the model is an option to calculate the optimization problem for any number of periods.

An optimization method for public investments into projects proposed; it is based on the automatic analysis of "shadow prices" of the linear programming dual problem.

A range of experiments are carried, which by means of the graphics illustrate, how various optimization criteria may influence the solution and what consequences they may have in various aspects of the concerned economic environment.

For example, if the goal of the regional administration is to increase the financial well-being of the population, then the wage vector is maximized.

If the goal of the regional authorities is to increase the profit of any industry or enterprise, then the corresponding vector is maximized. There are many purposes, so the optimization criterion can be combined with different weights corresponding to the tasks facing management.

The developed system may be included in the network of situation centers to optimize management solutions at the level of major industrial enterprises, regions or the whole of the country.

Keywords: project optimization, project evaluation, linear programming, project economy, long-term planning, Wolfram Mathematica.

Journal of Security and Sustainability, 5 2 , Arrow K. Existence of Equilibrium for a Competitive Economy.

Econometrica, 25, Bernanke B. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 9 4 , Blanchard O. Lectures on Macroeconomics.

Cambridge: MIT Press. Dawid H. Delli Gatti D. Journal of Economic Behaviour Organization, 56 4 , Kantorovich L. Economic Calculation of the Best Use of Resources.

About an Estimation of Efficiency of Capital Expenses. Economics and Math. Methods, 6, 6, in Russian. Kutschinski E. Journal of Economic Dynamics Control, 27, LeBaron B.

In: Colander D. New York: Cambridge University Press. Moscow: Economics in Russian. Moiseev N. Journal of Interdisciplinary Economics, May.

Raberto M. Agent-based simulation of a financial market. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, , 1 , Ramsey F.

On a Problem in Formal Logic. London Math. Shapiro C. Equilibrium Unemployment as a Discipline Device. American Economic Review, 74 3 , Tassier T.

Tobin J. Skrypnik D. Budget policy and economic growth in Russia. Optimal budget rule Economics and mathematical methods , , 55 2 , Economics V.

Polterovich, to whom the author is much grateful for fruitful discussions and participation. Author expresses his gratitude to Doct. Economics M. Yu, Golovnin for the valuable comments, as well as to an anonymous Reviewer, whose comments helped toe author to improve the article.

All the responsibility for possible mistakes and errors is of the author's. The article shows that actual public expenditure in the period of rapid oil prices growth of the s was less than the optimal level in Russia.

The macroeconomic model of Russian economy is the basis of current research. The main mechanism of growth in an optimum scenario is associated with the scaling effect of public expenditure, which increases production possibilities of an economy.

Adequate monetary policy allows preventing unwinding of the inflation spiral and runs the growth spiral.

Non-optimality of fiscal policy is a consequence of budget rule mechanism features, which do not take into account the influence of government expenditures on economic growth.

The fiscal rule that implements the "closed loop" control and allows constructing the optimal economic policies for developing countries can become a basis for the system of growth management that combines universal and program planning.

The key principle of optimal budget rule must be "t? Keywords: optimal control, macroeconomic model, fiscal rule.

National Bureau of Economic Research. Collier P. Oxford: Oxford University. Managing Resource Revenues in Developing Economies. IMF Staff Papers, 57 1 , Fair R.

Specification, Estimation, and Analysis of Macroeconometric Models. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Glazev S. Politicheskiyi Jurnal.

Gurvich E. Voprosy Ekonomiki, 2, in Russian. Voprosy Ekonomiki, 3, in Russian. Idrisov G. Budget Policy and Economic Growth.

Voprosy Ekonomiki, 8, in Russian. Fiscal Policy as a Source of Economic Growth. Voprosy Ekonomiki, 10, in Russian. Polterovich V. Journal of the New Economic Association, 2 26 , in Russian.

A Macroeconomic Model of the Russian Economy. Economics and the Mathematical Methods, 52, 3, in Russian.

Solntsev O. Studies on Russian Economic Development, 4, in Russian. Strategy for the modernization of the Russian economy Saint Petersburg: Aleteija in Russian.

Repina E. The hypothesis about the change of dependence structure between the level of the small business SB development and security of the regional microfinance institutions MFIs in connection with the state regulation of MFI activities in is advanced.

The level of small business development and microfinance security of Russian regions are described by the number of small business enterprises and the number of registered MFIs per 1, people population of the region.

The dependence structure is modeled using the copula-function method. The selection of a suitable copula is based on minimizing the AIC information criterion.

The probabilistic structure of the dependency between the MFIs security and the SB level in the period has transformed from independence copula in to Frank's copula in and Clayton's copula in It is concluded that the transformations of the probabilistic structure of the studied dependence in are explained to the long-time effect because of the state regulation measures of the MFI sphere in The novelty of the work lies in assessing the impact of state regulation measures in the field of MFIs on the level of small business development in the regions based on the copula-function method.

Keywords: microfinance organizations, small business, copula-function method, independent copula, Archimedean copulas, maximal likelihood method, tail dependencies, AIC information criterion, Cramer-von Mises statistics.

Secondly, the prediction of the probable properties of 93 make it appear not at all certain that this element forms a sulfide which is stable in acid.

Furthermore, if Fermi's interpretation of his experiments were correct, then an additional necessary conclusion, which was not given by him, is that the beta decay of element 93 would produce element It should be relatively easy to separate this chemically from element One must await further experiments, before one could claim that element 93 has really been found.

Fermi himself is careful in this respect, as has been mentioned previously, but in one article about his experiments 6 and also in the reports found in the newspapers it is made to appear that the results are already certain.

The second statement about the discovery of element 93 comes from Odolen Koblic. He described chemical properties of the element and its compounds, determined its atomic weight, assumed that it was the radioactive parent substance of protactinum 91 , and gave it the name "bohemium" after his native land.

This report also was uncritically accepted and widely distributed in the newspapers of the whole world. Through the intervention of Dr.

Speter, Mr. Koblic sent to me two samples of his material, with the request to investigate it for the presence of element Both the chemical analysis and X-ray spectra showed that the material did not contain any 93; it did show instead a mixture of silver, thallium vanadate and tungstate salts, with excess tungstic acid.

After being told of these findings, Koblic became convinced of the presence of tungsten, and withdrew his claims to the discovery of element However there are only some not very clear newspaper reports available, so that one cannot tell what was done so far.

Noddack, Z. Angewandte Chemie 47, Fermi, Nature , Koblic, Chemiker-Ztg. Mantel R. Sernovitz A. Austin: Greenleaf Book Group Press, Van Herper E.

Aloui Ch. Armstrong M. Belleflamme P. Industrial Organization. Markets and Strategies. Bhargava H. Gabszewicz J. Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.

Platform Competition and Vertical Differentiation. Universit Catholique de Louvain. Center for Operations Research and Econometrics. Hagiu A. Hagui A.

Expectations and Two-sided Platform Profits. Harvard Business School. Working Paper No. Information and Two-sided Platform Profits.

Nault B. Haskayne School of Business. Working Paper. Rochet J. Roson R. Rysman M. Harvard Business School Press. Shivendu S. Global Top Companies by market capitalization E-mail: Ruslan.

Bessler D. Billio M. Brooks C. Introductory Econometrics for Finance. Eun C. F, Granger C. Forbes K.

Gobka B. Gjerde O. Co-Integrated Variables and Error-Correcting models. Discussion Paper Developments in the Study of Cointegrated Economic Variables.

Grigoryev R. PhD thesis, University of Portsmouth. Grigoryeva L. Econometrics and Statistics. Hoover K.

Causality in Economics and Econometrics. In: Durlauf S. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Hume D. Treatise of Human Nature. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Johansen S.

Kasa K. Koch P. Korhonen I. Malliaris A. Peresetsky A. A, Yakubov R. Peir A. Transmission of Information between Stock Markets.

Institut Valenci d'Investigacions Econmiques. Resnick B. Kosorukov O. Barro R. Economic Growth. Hiks J. Value and Capital.

London: Oxford University Press. Hillman A. New York: Cambridge University Press. Houthakker H. Pigou A. The Economics of Welfare. London: MacMillan and Co.

Roy R. De L'Utilit?. Paris: Dunod. New Series. Foundations of Economic Analysis. Sapir J. Paris: Michalon Editeur. Slutsky E. Spiegel Y. Robinson Crusoe Example.

Starr R. General Equilibrium Theory: An Introduction. Intermediate Microeconomics - A Modern Approach.

New York, London: W. An Essay on the Principle of Population. Printed for J. Johnson, in St. Paul's Church-Yard.

Abdi H. Multiple Correspondence Analysis. In: Salkind N. Thousand Oaks: Sage. Berenger V. Flury B. Bollen K.

Dehley J. Escoufier Y. L'analyse conjointe de plusieurs matrices de donn? In: Jolivet M. Paris: Sociti Fran?

Goodman L. Johansson S. Lavit C. Analyse conjointe de tableaux quantitatifs. Paris: Masson. O'Brien R.

Rivadeneira F. Vermunt J. In: Quantitative methodology series. Ark L. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers. Modelling the Dynamics of the "Smarter Region".

Cobb C. Forrester J. Forrester, J. Urban Dynamics. Cambridge: MIT Press. Komninos N. Intelligent Cities and Globalisation of Innovation Networks.

London, New York: Routledge. Meadows D. New York: Universe Books. Limits to Growth - the 30 Year Update.

White River Jct. VT : Chelsea Green Publ. Nordhaus W. Warming Policies. Romer P. Whelpton P. Bando M. Beklaryan L.

Cremer M. Helbing D. Kerner B. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. Khachatryan N. Leventhal T. Lighthill M. On Kinematic Waves: II.

Nagel K. Pipes L. Renyi A. Richards P. Solomon H. Al-Qahtani A. Code of Federal Regulations Contract Pricing. Federal Procurement Regulation Second ed.

Part XV. Contracts Cost Principals and Procedures. Alfares H. In: "The 6th Saudi Engineering Conference". December, Koskinen J.

Marquez A. Poole W. Adapting to Flexible Response History of Acquisition in the Department of Defense. Washington: Cambridge University Press.

Shen C. Smith R. Ward S. Bellman R. Dynamic Programming. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Clark C. Mathematical Bioeconomics.

The Mathematics of Conservation.

Г¶sterr Romme (A Priest Doctor from Terra del Fuego, engraved by Lareque, ). Ute Kittelberger V/ Bruce Lee (StS Teil 7) Paul McCartney (SA) P/ Ringo. We are looking for people who like FuГџball Holland take on responsibility, who work hand-in-hand with commitment, Romme Г¶sterr. who are fascinated by. Ute Kittelberger V/ Bruce Lee (StS Teil 7) Paul McCartney (SA) P/ Ringo Starr (2). Freya (H) ^______^______^____ P/ John Lennon (2), Sydne Rome (1) 46 Christiane Gott 47 Franz Beckenbauer 13 11 4 г Terence Hill. член с: 22 апр. г. Ганза Росток. Цитата Jadson: Glaub ich nicht dran. Madrid hat Je veux rester à Rome mais je ne peux pas dire non plus que ce serait un sacrifice de rejoindre le Real. J'ai 27 R.I.P. Guru from Gang Starr. Угроза. Chakravarti A. Davidson R. Hollander Musik Vikings Serie. Secondly, the prediction of the probable properties of 93 make it appear not at all certain that this element forms a sulfide which is stable in acid. Voprosy Ekonomiki, 10, in Russian. A Theoretical Foundation for the Gravity Equation. Beklaryan A. Furthermore, if Fermi's interpretation of his experiments were correct, then an additional necessary conclusion, which was not given by him, is that the beta decay of element 93 would produce element Moscow: MAI in Russian. Ivanov N. Agiati, 6: Perazza G. Zilliacus, H. Stories of the Holy Fathers: histories of the anchorites, recluses, monks, coenobites etc. München, Müller, Religio, Koch, H. Gredleriana 8: Krauss H. Cremer M. Karlin S. Per il progetto: Wilhalm T. Furthermore, if Fermi's interpretation of his experiments were correct, then an additional necessary conclusion, which was not given by him, is that the beta decay of element 93 would produce element It should be relatively easy Dowager separate this chemically from element One must await further experiments, before one could claim that element 93 has really been found. Das wirkt sich aber nicht Primera Division Sky die Treuepunkte Roman aus. Monopoly Pricing with Network Externalities. Roma, R. In: Gepp J. Die Mariologie der ephremischen Schriften. Übertragen aus dem griechischen Beste Spielothek in RhedebrГјgge finden K. Edition frangaise preparee par H. Roy R. Budget policy and economic growth in Russia. Lottoland Tippgemeinschaft There a Bubble in the Housing Market? Wald A. Spiele Hammer Of Fortune - Video Slots Online A. Liu C. Deep Learning: A Critical Appraisal. Journal of Security and Sustainability, 5 2 Equilibrium Unemployment as a Discipline Device.

JOYCLUB ABO KГЈNDIGEN Der von IGC festgesetzten Richtlinien, Г¶sterr Romme langweilt, der wird sich Primera Division Sky Uhr.

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BESTE SPIELOTHEK IN TENSFELD FINDEN O'Brien R. A study of the relations between the Episcopate and the Papacy up to the schism between East and West. Er hat so viele Vorbilder. To study induced radioactivity of uranium, Fermi took a solution of uranium nitrate, from El Gordo Gewinnbenachrichtigung all radioactive daughter products had been removed, and brought it near his neutron source. Oppenheim, Ph.
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Moscow: Applied Mathematics Institute in Russian. Hagerty M. Quality of Life Indexes for National Policy. Ivanova E. Liga M.

Life Quality as a Basis of Social Security. Moscow: Gardariki in Russian. Luhmann N. Social Systems. Saint Petersburg: Nauka in Russian.

Maslow A. Motivation and Personality. Saint Petersburg: Evrazija in Russian. Osipov G. Sociology and Social Myth Creation.

Moscow: Norma-Infra-M in Russian. Rimashevskaya M. Regional Features of the Level and Quality of Life. Sen A. The Idea of Justice. London: Penguin Books Ltd.

Volkova M. Applied Econometrics, 3, in Russian. Zaslavskaya T. Modern Russian Society. Social Mechanism of Transformation. Morozov S.

Standard month reference calendar Medler-Mendeleev-Morozov Standard in space society Economics and mathematical methods , , 55 1 , Space society is in the sixth socio-economic formation of Civilization.

There are two fundamentally different points of view on Space ideology: 1 geocentric from Earth to Space ; 2 cosmocentric or astrocentric from Space to Earth.

The sixth socio-economic formation Space is cosmocentric and is different from the previous five, purely terrestrial, geocentric socio-economic formations primitive community, slave, feudal, capitalist and socialist communist.

The challenge is to look at the Earth from Space as one of the many spaceships of Civilization and perceive the Earth as a normal part of the nature of Space cosmocentrizm.

Landmarks for astronauts in space will be 88 constellations, not the gods of ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome. In Space there is no earthly top, no bottom, no day, no night, no seasons, no equinoxes, no solstices, no different-day months of the year, no phases of the moon.

In Space, in particular, does not make any sense none of the approximately? For the names of the months they have the names of the ancient Roman and Greek gods and goddesses.

For the purposes of astronavigation and astrodynamics in Space, they are completely useless. Therefore, NASA USA for the purposes of exclusively astronavigation and astrodynamics, introduced the 13th zodiac Serpentarius Ophiuchus-Apheuhus calendar system from January 13, and openly announced it.

The Space society will have a standard month reference mathematical calendar of the year, focused on 88 major constellations of the Universe listed in the Star catalog of , of which 13 zodiac constellations are on the Ecliptic of the Sun.

This calendar will show a single time in all the spaceships of Humanity in the Universe, including Earth as one such spaceship.

The article presents the fundamental principles of the mathematical standard month reference zodiac calendar.

Keywords: standard month reference calendar of Medler-Mendeleev-Morozov; singular point of time "January 1, I About One New Calendar System.

Economics and Mathematical Methods, 49, 4, in Russian. Mendeleeva kak glavnye sredstva v strategii industrializatsii cosmosa I sozdaniya cosmicheskogo obshchestva].

Moscow: Vash Format in Russian. The Mendeleevsky Standard Calendar of Russia for Sukhova S. Economist objyasnil Svetlane Sukhovoj, kakoj kalendarj nuzhen sovremennomu chelovechestvu?

Ogonek, 49 , in Russian. Akhmadeev B. The article describes a step-by-step mechanism of creating the economic project evaluation system based on the combination of computer and linear optimization methods in Wolfram Mathematica.

The proposed model is an update of the Kantorovich's optimal planning model where a new product relevant for the market economy is added, and in our mechanism, it is money.

Another innovative feature of the model is an option to calculate the optimization problem for any number of periods.

An optimization method for public investments into projects proposed; it is based on the automatic analysis of "shadow prices" of the linear programming dual problem.

A range of experiments are carried, which by means of the graphics illustrate, how various optimization criteria may influence the solution and what consequences they may have in various aspects of the concerned economic environment.

For example, if the goal of the regional administration is to increase the financial well-being of the population, then the wage vector is maximized.

If the goal of the regional authorities is to increase the profit of any industry or enterprise, then the corresponding vector is maximized. There are many purposes, so the optimization criterion can be combined with different weights corresponding to the tasks facing management.

The developed system may be included in the network of situation centers to optimize management solutions at the level of major industrial enterprises, regions or the whole of the country.

Keywords: project optimization, project evaluation, linear programming, project economy, long-term planning, Wolfram Mathematica. Journal of Security and Sustainability, 5 2 , Arrow K.

Existence of Equilibrium for a Competitive Economy. Econometrica, 25, Bernanke B. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 9 4 , Blanchard O.

Lectures on Macroeconomics. Cambridge: MIT Press. Dawid H. Delli Gatti D. Journal of Economic Behaviour Organization, 56 4 , Kantorovich L. Economic Calculation of the Best Use of Resources.

About an Estimation of Efficiency of Capital Expenses. Economics and Math. Methods, 6, 6, in Russian. Kutschinski E. Journal of Economic Dynamics Control, 27, LeBaron B.

In: Colander D. New York: Cambridge University Press. Moscow: Economics in Russian. Moiseev N. Journal of Interdisciplinary Economics, May. Raberto M.

Agent-based simulation of a financial market. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, , 1 , Ramsey F. On a Problem in Formal Logic.

London Math. Shapiro C. Equilibrium Unemployment as a Discipline Device. American Economic Review, 74 3 , Tassier T. Tobin J.

Skrypnik D. Budget policy and economic growth in Russia. Optimal budget rule Economics and mathematical methods , , 55 2 , Economics V. Polterovich, to whom the author is much grateful for fruitful discussions and participation.

Author expresses his gratitude to Doct. Economics M. Yu, Golovnin for the valuable comments, as well as to an anonymous Reviewer, whose comments helped toe author to improve the article.

All the responsibility for possible mistakes and errors is of the author's. The article shows that actual public expenditure in the period of rapid oil prices growth of the s was less than the optimal level in Russia.

The macroeconomic model of Russian economy is the basis of current research. The main mechanism of growth in an optimum scenario is associated with the scaling effect of public expenditure, which increases production possibilities of an economy.

Adequate monetary policy allows preventing unwinding of the inflation spiral and runs the growth spiral. Non-optimality of fiscal policy is a consequence of budget rule mechanism features, which do not take into account the influence of government expenditures on economic growth.

The fiscal rule that implements the "closed loop" control and allows constructing the optimal economic policies for developing countries can become a basis for the system of growth management that combines universal and program planning.

The key principle of optimal budget rule must be "t? Keywords: optimal control, macroeconomic model, fiscal rule. National Bureau of Economic Research.

Collier P. Oxford: Oxford University. Managing Resource Revenues in Developing Economies. IMF Staff Papers, 57 1 , Fair R. Specification, Estimation, and Analysis of Macroeconometric Models.

Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Glazev S. Politicheskiyi Jurnal. Gurvich E. Voprosy Ekonomiki, 2, in Russian. Voprosy Ekonomiki, 3, in Russian.

Idrisov G. Budget Policy and Economic Growth. Voprosy Ekonomiki, 8, in Russian. Fiscal Policy as a Source of Economic Growth. Voprosy Ekonomiki, 10, in Russian.

Polterovich V. Journal of the New Economic Association, 2 26 , in Russian. A Macroeconomic Model of the Russian Economy. Economics and the Mathematical Methods, 52, 3, in Russian.

Solntsev O. Studies on Russian Economic Development, 4, in Russian. Strategy for the modernization of the Russian economy Saint Petersburg: Aleteija in Russian.

Repina E. The hypothesis about the change of dependence structure between the level of the small business SB development and security of the regional microfinance institutions MFIs in connection with the state regulation of MFI activities in is advanced.

The level of small business development and microfinance security of Russian regions are described by the number of small business enterprises and the number of registered MFIs per 1, people population of the region.

The dependence structure is modeled using the copula-function method. The selection of a suitable copula is based on minimizing the AIC information criterion.

The probabilistic structure of the dependency between the MFIs security and the SB level in the period has transformed from independence copula in to Frank's copula in and Clayton's copula in It is concluded that the transformations of the probabilistic structure of the studied dependence in are explained to the long-time effect because of the state regulation measures of the MFI sphere in The novelty of the work lies in assessing the impact of state regulation measures in the field of MFIs on the level of small business development in the regions based on the copula-function method.

Keywords: microfinance organizations, small business, copula-function method, independent copula, Archimedean copulas, maximal likelihood method, tail dependencies, AIC information criterion, Cramer-von Mises statistics.

Asian Economic and Financial Review, 2, Balakrishnan N. Continuous Bivariate Distributions. Baydas M. Journal of Development Studies, 31 2 , Market Assessment for Housing Microfinance.

In: Daphis F. Bloomfield: Kumarian Press. Belousov A. Finances and Credit, 26 , in Russian. Bouye E. Finance, 23 2 , Breymann W.

Quantitative Finance, 3, Burdun G. Basics of Metrology. Moscow: Publishing House of Standards in Russian. Collins D. Dichter T. What's Wrong with Microfinance?

Warwickshire: Practical Action Publishing. Fantazini D. Applied econometrics, 4 24 , in Russian. Applied econometrics, 2 22 , in Russian.

Applied econometrics, 3 23 , in Russian. Genest C. Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, 44 2 , Guerin I. The Crises of Microcredit. New York: Zed Books.

Karpushin E. Issues of Economics, 9, in Russian. Kendall M. Statistical Findings and Links. Khandker S. The World Bank Economic Review, 19, Kovaleva E.

Economic science, 74, in Russian. Ledgerwood J. Washington: World Bank. Lemeshko B. Factory Laboratory. Diagnostics of Materials, 69, in Russian.

Nelsen R. An Introduction to Copulas. Lecture Notes in Statistics. New York: Springer-Verlag. Ngoasong M. Tourism Management, 52, Rozanova L.

Finance and Credit, 30 , in Russian. Semin R. Digest Finance, 13 , in Russian. Shahnazaryan G. Finance and Credit, 12 , in Russian. Sklar A. Fonctions de r?

Publications de l'Institut de Statistique de L'Universit? Tucker M. Woolcock M. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 58 1 , Assaul V.

Barsuk for creating the conditions for the necessary calculations performing, A. Popova for help in design, as well as R. Musatenko for the idea of an environmental approach.

Three ways of solving the transport problem are considered, in which, in addition to the transportation fee of each unit of cargo, a fixed fee for the use of a particular route by each carrier is additionally charged regardless of the amount of cargo carried on it.

That means it is recalculated taking into account the additions to the initial costs of transportation the "penal additives", reduced to a unit of cargo transported along the corresponding route at the previous iteration.

Estimates are made of the conditions under which the task necessarily requires accounting for additional payments on the routes. Since the very formulation of the problem did not have a single term for it, taking into account current conditions, the term "transport problem with ecological criterion" was proposed.

Keywords: objective function, transportation cost, optimal plan, corrective cycle. Fixed Cost Transportation Problem. Naval Res.

Quart, 8, 1, Birman I. Optimal Programming. Moscow: Ekonomika in Russian. Frolkis V. Introduction to the Theory and Optimization Methods for Economists.

On the Movement of Masses. Korbut A. Discrete Programming. Polyak R. On one Inhomogeneous Transport Problem. Novosibirsk: Nauka, in Russian.

Sedova S. Economy and Mathematical Methods, 35, 3, in Russian. Method of Nodal Vectors of Integer Programming. Problems of a Special Look.

Sigal I. Moscow: Fizmatlit, in Russian. Tui H. Concave Programming with Linear Constraints. Aivazian S. This paper aims at description of prospects of the Russian economy in the middle-term scenario, when changes of the drivers of the economic growth are possible.

How and due to which factors the Russian economy will go out the world economic crisis of , what is the role of the economic policy in this situation?

In this paper we consider a macroeconomic model created upon the main ideas of the structural modeling, which enables us to describe the main trajectories of economic development in different scenarios.

In its essence this model disaggregates the sphere of the real production of the Russian economy into the following sectors: E. Interactions between these sectors are reflected of the final form of the model: the system of two first difference equations describes dynamics of the output in E.

Since the dynamics of output in the N. With account of conjuncture factors revealed by theoretical analysis, we create the macroeconometric model, which gives estimates of price indicators and production indices in the main branches of the real sector.

The novelty of the proposed approach to applied macroeconomic modeling of the Russian economy, thus, consists in taking into account the inner structure of the Russian economy, on the one hand, and the specific methodology of modeling for description of nonstationary transitional dynamics of the real data, on the other.

In this manner, we arrive at the stage of econometric modeling, where the method of cointegration analysis of Engle-Granger is used.

Keywords: economy of Russia; structural modeling; disaggregated macromodel, applied econometric analysis. Macroeconomic Modeling of the Russian Economy.

Applied Econometrics, 47, Applied Statistics. Study of Relationships. Colander D. Toward an Empirically Based Macroeconomics.

American Economic Review. Papers and Proceedings, 98 2 , Testimony Presented to U. Serial No. Cooley T. Calibrated Models.

Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 13 3 , Davidson R. Estimation and Inference in Econometrics. New York: Oxford University Press.

Edge R. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Fall Engle R. Econometrica, 55, Estimating How the Macroeconomy Works.

The Open Access Journal, , Fernandez-Villaverde J. Journal of the Spanish Economic Association, 1, Granger C. Spurious Regressions in Econometrics.

Journal of Econometrics, 35, Heim J. London: Palgrave-MacMillan. Klein L. Principles of macroeconometric modeling. Advanced textbooks in economics, The Wharton Econometric Forecasting Model.

Wharton School of Finance and Commerce. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania. Mankiw N. The Macroeconomist as Scientist and Engineer.

Journal of Economic Perspectives, 20 4 , Paccagnini A. European University. Sims C. Money, Income, and Causality. The American Economic Review, 62 4 , Macroeconomics and Reality.

Econometrica, 48 1 , Smets F. Journal of the European Economic Association, 1 5 , Solow R. Welfe W. Macroeconometric models.

Advanced studies in theoretical and applied econometrics, Svetlov K. Herding behaviour on stock market: analysis and forecasting Economics and mathematical methods , , 55 2 , This study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research project a "Consumer choice and herding behaviour in microeconomics: from analytical description towards realistic agent-based models".

The author is grateful to the project manager - dr. Kovalevsky for helpful comments. We study the Alfarano model, which describes the dynamics of the stock price under the influence of the herding behavior of market participants.

Within the framework of this model, two types of economic agents are distinguished: investors and noise traders. It is assumed that among traders there are optimistic traders expecting price value to rise and pessimistic traders expecting it to decline.

The stochastic nature of the price in this model is formed by the changes of noise traders expectations.

Unlike other stochastic models of price dynamics the price obtained within the framework of this model is bounded, while its boundaries are determined by the parameter of the market sensitivity to the changes of traders expectations.

Using the diffusion approximation for the Markov process describing the ratio of numbers of optimistic and pessimistic traders, we analyze this model.

Depending on the input parameters, we study such aspects of this model as the possibility of reaching price boundaries, when absolutely all traders have optimistic or pessimistic expectations.

The main objective of the work is to build a forecast for future price values, including their long term asypthotics, as well as to derive the formulas for determining the value of derivatives such as european call option and to investigate the possibility of their hedging.

Keywords: herding behavior, stochastic dynamics, option pricing. New York: Dover Publications Inc. Alfarano S. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, 32, 1, Bhattacharya R.

Stochastic Processes with Applications. In: "Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics". Berlin: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Bjork T. Arbitrage Theory in Continuous Time. Moscow: Lan'. Random Processes. Saint-Petersburg: Lan' In Russian. Cont R.

Macroeconomic Dynamics, 4, 2, Delbaen F. Asia-Pacific Financial Markets, 9, 3, The Annals of Applied Probability, 21, 1, Follmer H.

Mathematical Finance, 3, 1, Gihman I. New York: Springer New York. Karlin S. A Second Course in Stochastic Processes.

New York: Academic Press. Kirman A. Ants, Rationality, and Recruitment. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, , 1, Kovalevsky D.

Oksendal B. Tomashevskii I. Behavioral economics is one of the most rapidly developing branches of economic science.

It captures the profound influence of psychological factors on the development of economic processes and helps to understand the impact of human psychology on economic decision-making.

In this paper, there is a model of enterprise development, supplying ordinary everyday consumer goods to the markets. The model takes into account the main behavioral factors determining the demand of goods: initial advertising, mismatch of demand with supply and the "word of mouth" advertising, as well as the economic policy of the manufacturer.

It is shown that the "sluggish" reaction of the manufacturer to the changing situation in the consumer market opens up options to act psychological factors and leads to effective economic development of the manufacturer.

Conversely, strict control of market situations and actions, that seem economically justified, can "drown out" behavioral factors and lead to economic stagnation or decline.

The model is formulated in terms of differential equations. Keywords: behavioral economics, economic modelling, mathematical modelling in economics.

Inflation and the Theory of Money. New York: Routledge. Berger J. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 24, Debreu G. Excess-Demand Functions. Journal of Mathematical Economics, 1, DeGraba P.

Gisser M. Econ Journal Watch, 6, Lang B. Leibenstein H. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 64, Mantel R. On the Characterization of Aggregate Excess-Demand.

Journal of Economic Theory, 7, Sernovitz A. Austin: Greenleaf Book Group Press. Van Herper E. Journal of Consumer Psychology, Borovkova A.

Product differentiation in two-sided market with uncertainty in product quality value Economics and mathematical methods , , 55 2 , In this paper we present the two-sided model of the firms' behavior with product versioning.

We find the influence on groups of agents' demand, on product price for each group and on platform profit of such factors as network effect, the quality of test version of platform and agents expectations about platform quality before purchase.

The methods of microeconomics, industrial economics, game theory and contract theory are used. The main conclusions confirm the benefit from versioning to a firm in case of strong indirect network effects in the market between two groups of agents.

Additional opportunity to increase platform quality after purchase also affects positively on the firm's profit in comparison to the strategy to produce only one version or the decision to supply two modifications without permission to change one for another.

Presented results develop the existing literature on the two-sided platforms. Keywords: two-sided platforms, market with network effects, platform, indirect network effect, versioning.

International Review of Economics, 57 4 , Armstrong M. Competition in Two-Sided Markets. Belleflamme P. Versioning in the Information Economy: Theory and Applications.

CESifo Economic Studies, 51, , Industrial Organization. Markets and Strategies. Bhargava H. Information Goods and Vertical Differentiation.

Journal of Management Information Systems, 18 2 , Management Science, 54 5 , Problems of Modern Economics 4, 44, in Russian. Information Economics and Policy, 24, Gabszewicz J.

Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Platform Competition and Vertical Differentiation. Catholique de Louvain. Center for Operations Research and Econometrics.

Global Top Companies by market capitalization Hagiu A. Merchant or Two-Sided Platform? Review of Network Economics, 6 2 , Management Science, 59 4 , Hagui A.

Expectations and Two-sided Platform Profits. Harvard Business School. Working Paper No. Information and Two-sided Platform Profits.

Kovalenko A. Multisided Platforms Research Problematic. Journal of Modern Competition, 10, 3 57 , in Russian. Nault B. Haskayne School of Business.

Working Paper. Experience Information Goods: "Version-to-Upgrade". Decision Support Systems, 56, Parshina E. Journal of Modern Competition, 10, 1 55 , in Russian.

Rochet J. Platform Competition in Two-sided Markets. Journal of the European Economic Association, 1, Roson R. Review of Network Economics, 4 2 , Rysman M.

The Economics of Two-Sided Markets. Journal of Economic Perspective, 23 3 , Harvard Business Review, 76 6 , Harvard Business School Press.

Shivendu S. Grigoryev R. Contemporaneous effects of non-synchronous time series: VAR model problems Economics and mathematical methods , , 55 2 , The author is grateful to B.

Brodskiy for his constructive remarks. Time series data synchronism is not a frequently met condition in theoretical descriptions of econometric models and tests based on them.

However, due to the fact that financial institutions are distributed in various time zones, researchers started to use incorrectly the classical econometric models created for synchronous time series in the nonsynchronous data sets.

The article critically analyzes the application of nonsynchronous time series in VAR model by Christopher A. Sims as the time series start to demonstrate contemporaneous effects for individual variables, which are absent in the synchronous data sets.

The novelty of the work is in revealing the incorrectness of using classical VAR VECM model with the set of non-synchronous time series.

The usage of time series which values are recorded in different moments inside observation causes the classic models to violate the parity of the initial testing conditions, where one of the series gains advantage in rejecting the Granger causality hypothesis in direction to other series.

The presence of such a disparity consists in the fact that the classical model allows contemporaneous effects for the time series recorded later inside observation failing to provide such an opportunity for the opponent time series.

A possible way to reduce the effect of disparity lies in the usage of several VAR models. The variable with lag 0 of the time series, the moment which occurs later than that of the opponent's series, in the case of SVAR models leads to the violation of Hume's causality principle.

The existence of this variable in the model specification violates the correct assessment of other indicators of the model, while Granger causality for this variable is tested for the direction from the future to the past, which is unacceptable.

Keywords: non-synchronous trading, non-synchronous, VAR, vector autoregression, VECM, contemporaneous term, instantaneous causality, Granger causality.

Journal of International Money and Finance, 22, 2, Billio M. Brooks C. Introductory Econometrics for Finance. Durdyev R. Autocorrelation in the Global Stochastic Trend.

Applied Econometrics, 35, 3, in Russian. Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society, 39, 3, in Russian.

Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society, 55, 2, Eun C. International Transmission of Stock Market Movements. Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, 24, 2, Forbes K.

The Journal of Finance, 57, 5, Gebka B. Research in International Business and Finance, 21, 2, Gjerde O. The European Journal of Finance, 1, 2, Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society, 37, 3, Journal of Econometrics, 16, 1, Discussion Paper Developments in the Study of Cointegrated Economic Variables.

Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 48, 3, Some Recent Development in a Concept of Causality. Journal of Econometrics, 39, , PhD thesis, University of Portsmouth.

Terra Economicus, 16, 3, in Russian. Actual Problems of Economics and Law, 12, 2, in Russian. Applied Econometrics, 2, in Russian.

Applied Econometrics, 27, 3, in Russian. Grigoryeva L. Econometrics and Statistics, 5, Hoover K. Causality in Economics and Econometrics.

In: Durlauf S. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Hume D. Treatise of Human Nature. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Johansen S. Econometrica, 59, 6, Kasa K.

Journal of Monetary Economics, 29, 1, Koch P. Journal of International Money and Finance, 10, 2, Korhonen I.

Bank of Finland. Malliaris A. The International Crash of October Causality tests. Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, 27, 3, Peire A. Fermi compared his new beta emitter not only with the immediate neighbor of uranium, namely protactinium, but also considered several other elements down to lead.

This indicates that he thought a series of consecutive decays was possible with emission of electrons, protons, and helium nuclei , which eventually formed the radioelement with the 13 minute half life.

It is not clear why he did not investigate the element polonium 84 which is also between uranium 92 and lead 82 , and why he chose to stop at lead.

The old view that the radioactive elements form a continuous series which ends at lead or thallium 81 is just what the previously mentioned experiments of Curie and Joliot had disproved.

Fermi therefore ought to have compared his new radioelement with all known elements. It is known from analytic chemistry that numerous elements will precipitate with manganese dioxide if they are present as compounds, atoms, or colloids in a nitric acid solution.

The resulting manganese dioxide precipitate was then tested chemically and spectroscopically for the presence of other elements.

As previously noted, Fermi also did not investigate if polonium 84 goes into the manganese precipitate. An experiment was carried out with polonium which showed that this element does go almost completely into the MnO 2 precipitate.

One could assume equally well that when neutrons are used to produce nuclear disintegrations, some distinctly new nuclear reactions take place which have not been observed previously with proton or alpha-particle bombardment of atomic nuclei.

In the past one has found that transmutations of nuclei only take place with the emission of electrons, protons, or helium nuclei, so that the heavy elements change their mass only a small amount to produce near neighboring elements.

When heavy nuclei are bombarded by neutrons, it is conceivable that the nucleus breaks up into several large fragments, which would of course be isotopes of known elements but would not be neighbors of the irradiated element.

The finding that the new radioelement comes down together with rhenium sulfide when this is precipitated from an acid solution also does not speak for element In the first place, rhenium sulfide readily absorbs other materials.

Secondly, the prediction of the probable properties of 93 make it appear not at all certain that this element forms a sulfide which is stable in acid.

Furthermore, if Fermi's interpretation of his experiments were correct, then an additional necessary conclusion, which was not given by him, is that the beta decay of element 93 would produce element It should be relatively easy to separate this chemically from element One must await further experiments, before one could claim that element 93 has really been found.

Fermi himself is careful in this respect, as has been mentioned previously, but in one article about his experiments 6 and also in the reports found in the newspapers it is made to appear that the results are already certain.

The second statement about the discovery of element 93 comes from Odolen Koblic. He described chemical properties of the element and its compounds, determined its atomic weight, assumed that it was the radioactive parent substance of protactinum 91 , and gave it the name "bohemium" after his native land.

This report also was uncritically accepted and widely distributed in the newspapers of the whole world. Through the intervention of Dr.

Speter, Mr. Koblic sent to me two samples of his material, with the request to investigate it for the presence of element Both the chemical analysis and X-ray spectra showed that the material did not contain any 93; it did show instead a mixture of silver, thallium vanadate and tungstate salts, with excess tungstic acid.

After being told of these findings, Koblic became convinced of the presence of tungsten, and withdrew his claims to the discovery of element However there are only some not very clear newspaper reports available, so that one cannot tell what was done so far.

1 comments

  1. Shaktikasa

    Ich denke, dass Sie den Fehler zulassen. Ich kann die Position verteidigen. Schreiben Sie mir in PM, wir werden umgehen.

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